Social investment policies that women want

By Hanna Schwander and Julian Garritzmann

What kind of welfare state do women want? Despite much progress in the strive for equal opportunities between women and men in modern societies, women still face more and different social and economic risks than men. They are more likely to be poor in old age, in particular after a divorce, more likely to work in atypical employment, and more likely to shoulder the double burden of care and paid work. The welfare state plays a crucial role in mitigating these risks. Over the last decade, policy-makers have taken a new approach to combat risks. Instead of passively compensating citizens in the event of misfortune, as the traditional welfare state does, the social investment welfare state centers on fostering human skills and capabilities. Its policies, such as childcare provision, education, and active labor market policies, aim to increase the employability of citizens and to help them to find “good jobs”.

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Elder care and paid work: Gender differences in the relationship between unpaid elder care work and employment in Bulgaria

by Mieke Meurs and Lisa Giddings

Covid-19 has shown a bright light on the unequal burden of care on women and the impact of this burden on women’s wellbeing. The increase in household work, childcare, homeschooling, and the care of older adults, which under normal circumstances is disproportionately born by women, has been exacerbated in the pandemic as “Covid took a crowbar into gender gaps and pried them open”. This is taking an economic and emotional toll. According to McKinsey Global Institute, women’s jobs are 1.8 times more vulnerable in Covid-19 than men’s, and while women comprise 39 percent of global employment, but they account for 54 percent of job losses. Research in the United States showed that among mothers of children under 18 years of age, 57 percent are experiencing increased stress due to the coronavirus outbreak, compared 32 percent of fathers.

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Female-breadwinner families on the breadline

By Helen Kowalewska and Agnese Vitali

Since the 1990s, there has been a rise in the number of households in which women are working more hours than their male partners across the UK and other advanced economies. Female breadwinners are often stereotyped as career-oriented, empowered, and high-earning women. However, our study suggests this is often not the case.

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What can public opinion towards a universal basic income teach us about its likely political future?

By Tim Vlandas

Why care about the politics of UBI?

The idea of giving a universal and unconditional income to everyone is not new, but it has recently attracted more attention during the covid-19 crisis. While there has been a long-standing debate in academic and policy making circles about the normative merits and economic effects of a Universal Basic Income (UBI), this does not tell us about the likelihood of a UBI being introduced.

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When inclusive measures expose cracks: The Nordic Social Protection in times of crisis

By Trine P. Larsen and Anna Ilsøe

The Nordic economies were – similar to the rest of Europe – hit hard by the Corona pandemic with historical drops in GDP and rising unemployment in the first two quarters of 2020. Non-standard workers were particularly hard hit. Many worked in the most crisis-ridden sectors such as tourism, hotel and restaurant. To help companies and workers, including non-standard workers, to cope with the COVID-19 crisis, the Nordic governments launched more than 130 ad hoc relief packages and amendments in their social protection schemes, often in close collaboration with social partners and with broad support of other political parties. However, certain groups, notably temporary employed, entrepreneurs, freelancers and part-time workers with few hours continued to fall through the cracks in the system despite the ongoing adjustments of the unprecedented policy responses, and more so in some Nordic countries than others.

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Care, Caring and Social Policy in COVID-19 Times

By Mary Daly

If nothing else, the COVID-19 virus invites us to think big and reconsider our lives and our world. In this context, I want to suggest the benefits of thinking about the pandemic through the concept of care.

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Who deserves what in times of COVID19?

by Tijs Laenen

Nobody knows what the future holds for European welfare states. What seems certain, however, is that the current COVID19 crisis – after first creating a political consensus rarely seen before – is now opening up new debates about welfare deservingness that will spark intense political conflict in the years to come. This blog post reveals some of the most important deservingness discussions that are currently unfolding across Europe, using the Belgian welfare state as a telling example.

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Social security innovation for inclusive worker support during the corona crisis?

by Sonja Bekker and Janine Leschke

Introduction

Labour market flexibility has increased over the past decades with a growing variety in types of employment relationships. This may be qualified as a transition from segmented to fragmented labour markets which Eurofound describes as an ‘increase in forms of work and employment which differ from the ‘standard employment relationship’ of permanent, full-time, socially secure employment’.

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Inequality in employment during the Corona lockdown: Evidence from Germany

By Katja Möhring, Elias Naumann, Maximiliane Reifenscheid, Annelies G. Blom, Alexander Wenz, Tobias Rettig, Roni Lehrer, Ulrich Krieger, Sebastian Juhl, Sabine Friedel, Marina Fikel, and Carina Cornesse

The Coronavirus crisis and the related lockdown measures had a devastating impact on the economies and labour markets of the affected countries. In Germany, lockdown measures were initiated in mid-March and included immediate closure of public facilities, restaurants, shops, theatres etc. on March, 22nd the latest. Due to the following collapse of domestic demand and exports, more sectors than hospitality and retail were affected.

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Turning Loud Claps into Living Wages: Tackling In-work Poverty within a Post-COVID-19 Landscape

by Calum Carson

High levels of low pay and in-work poverty have long been a feature of the British economy, despite a high-profile campaign and the individual efforts of some ethically-minded employers to introduce a Living Wage for all workers. However, can the new-found public appreciation for low-paid key workers since the emergence of COVID-19 successfully (and permanently) challenge the low-pay status quo, and translate this vocal support into helping more workers afford a decent standard of living?

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